I know that 2nd Great Awakening’s effect was reform but what prompted the 2nd Great Awakening to happen?
People were less interested in religion, church attendance was down.
The second great awakening was caused by a new shift in theology [away from calvinism, towards Arminianism [basically liberal Calvinism] and the growing anxiety of people in a changing world. When people are anxious, they reach for comfort, and religion was often a comfort in times of uncertainty.
It was also a chance for people to refocus. America, with its “Protestant work ethic” had become focused on money and progress; people were no longer taking time to worship God. Many of the people on the frontier didn’t have access to houses of worship, so religious revivals popped up around the country. The revivals, often takung place out in fields or tents rather than in churches, emphasized that people needed to rely on God.