Charge of Water

can you explain why hydrogen and oxygen are partially charged

This is more of a chem topic, and it has to do with the differences in electronegativities between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

It’s highly unlikely that College Board will assess you on this topic!

Do we need to know the relationship between the charge of the cytoplasm compared to the charge of the extracellular fluid and how it helps in transport (the charge was in one of the images in the crowd cast)???

What you need to know is that there is a concentration gradient across the cell membrane in order to create energy to move molecules across the membrane. Here’s a picture taken from here https://www.78stepshealth.us/plasma-membrane/uptake-of-mineral-ions-requires-membrane-transport-proteins.html (78 Steps Health Journal):

image

What’s the role of an electrochemical gradient

Sorry for getting back to you so late! The electrochemical gradient (high outside, low inside) causes necessary ions (like K+ or Cl-) to want to enter the cell without expending energy.

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