What was higher-order learning? I didn’t really understand what he meant by it.
Higher-order learning is where a previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus at the encouragement of another previously neutral stimulus. For example, in the original Pavlov, the sound of the bell was the neutral and conditioned stimulus. For higher-order conditioning to occur, one would condition the dogs to drool using the sound of the bell as an unconditioned stimulus, with something like a light serving as a new neutral/conditioned stimulus.
Higher-Order Conditioning is a type of conditioning emphasized by Ivan Pavlov. It involves the modification of reaction to a neutral stimulus associated with a conditioned stimulus that was formerly neutral.
When a random object is introduced when the bell is rung, the dogs continued to salivate. But, when the bell was taken away, and the new random object was used instead, the dogs continued to salivate. This indicates that the stimulus can be changed and that salivation will still occur.