Cognition

things im confused about

  • explicit vs. implicit memories
  • state dependent in encoding
  • mental set
    -anchoring

and could i have an example of inductive/deductive reasoning & productive/receptive language, maturation

Explicit memories are what you traditionally think of as memories—your memories of events and facts. Implicit memories, controlled by the cerebellum rather than hippocampus, are procedural. They are your memories of how to do things.

State dependent memories help with encoding by allow easier retrieval if you are in the same emotional/physiological state that you learned the material. If you are happy when you are doing notes, you’ll have an easier time on the test if you are happy for it too.

A mental set is an organized bit of information about a certain concept. We have a mental set for dogs that tells us that they are fluffy, waggy tails, sweethearts, then you meet a chihuahua, and it’s like what on earth is that because it doesn’t fit the mental set of what a dog is. Anchoring for a mental set would involve not accepting the lie that chihuahuas are dogs because it does not match that mental set.

Inductive reasoning is when you move from a specific piece of knowledge to a generalization. My students assume that I like cats because I have cat stuff in my room (people keep buying it for me I swear). With deductive reasoning, you go from general knowledge, like plants need light to process food, to specific, since a cactus is a plant, it uses photosynthesis.

Productive language is when you go from just making random sounds to actually producing words. Receptive language is understanding the words of others, so a child learning what idioms mean, learning local phrases, etc.

Maturation is developing biologically. It is nature versus nurture. An example of maturation would be learning to speak, which is somewhat biologically determined because most children do it around the same time worldwide.

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