i missed when he explained what a confounding variable means. can you please explain how to explain a confounding variable in a problem?

Confounding happens when a variable and the exp. variables are associated in a way that their effects on a rsp. Variable can’t be distinguished from one another.

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If you have an observational study their might be another variable affecting the response variable that was unaccounted for because observational studies don’t have random assignment.


Cigarette smoking vs Blood pressure.

Exercise might be a confounding variable here. You might think that smoking cigarettes increases blood pressure but smoker might be more likely to not exercise due to an unhealthy lifestyle. So maybe exercise not smoking is affecting the confounding variable! You see?

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