If the prompt says an experimenter believes one source leads to another source, does that mean causation or is that just correlation? Thanks!
One source leads to another implies caustion. To state it without causation, you would say that on source is related to or associated with another.
The prompt is really not giving away either. This is simply a hypothesis that is yet to be tested. In other words, though he believes they connect, until he has some research data he cannot establish a correlation (r factor) nor confidently say one causes the other. That being said, he is implying causation.
This really depends on what the experimenter did for research. If the experimenter actually did a true experiment (manipulated a variable in a classic kind of lab experiment) then the experiment proves causation. If the researcher (not doing an experiment) looks at two variables and notices that one increases while the other increases (for example) they are going to need more data, preferably from a controlled study (an experiment) to show causation. You can’t show anything but a relationship (which may not be causal) from correlation.