Cram questions

Things I’m confused on:

  • Endocrine system creates hormones
  • Where are dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals, synapse -to next neuron
  • Reuptake mechanism
  • Counfounding variables and examples
  • Anterograde amnesia & retrograde amnesia
  • Gestalt principles (proximity, continuity, and closure)
  • Top-down processing & bottom-up
  • Perceptual set, Context effects, schema
  • Job of the frontal and parietal cortex
  • Feel good do good thing & term for doing good without receiving anything in return
  • Generalization
  • US, UR, CS, CR
  • Priming
  • Convergent and divergent thinking

Hello! If you give me a few minutes, I’ll answer all of your questions!

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Thank you.

  • Endocrine system creates hormones
    The endocrine system consists of a series of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones. Like neurotransmitters, hormones are chemical messengers that must bind to a receptor in order to send their signal. However, unlike neurotransmitters, which are released in close proximity to cells with their receptors, hormones are secreted into the bloodstream and travel throughout the body, affecting any cells that contain receptors for them. Thus, whereas neurotransmitters’ effects are localized, the effects of hormones are widespread. Also, hormones are slower to take effect, and tend to be longer lasting.

  • Where are dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals, synapse -to next neuron
    Check this out!

  • Reuptake mechanism
    The absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted.

  • Counfounding variables and examples
    A confounding variable is an “extra” variable that you didn’t account for. They can ruin an experiment and give you useless results. For example, if you are researching whether lack of exercise leads to weight gain, lack of exercise is your independent variable and weight gain is your dependent variable.
  • Anterograde amnesia & retrograde amnesia
    Retrograde amnesia is the inability to recall past memories while anterograde amnesia is the inability to create new memories.

  • Gestalt principles (proximity, continuity, and closure)
    Check this link out!
    http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Gestalt_principles

  • Top-down processing & bottom-up
    Bottom-up refers to the way it is built up from the smallest pieces of sensory information. Top-down processing, on the other hand, refers to perception that is driven by cognition. Your brain applies what it knows and what it expects to perceive and fills in the blanks, so to speak.

  • Perceptual set, Context effects, schema
    A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy, is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way.
    A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one’s perception of a stimulus.
    In psychology and cognitive science, a schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
  • Job of the frontal and parietal cortex
    The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls important cognitive skills in humans, such as emotional expression, problem solving, memory , language, judgment, and sexual behaviors. It is, in essence, the “control panel” of our personality and our ability to communicate.
    The parietal lobe is at the back of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres. It functions in processing sensory information regarding the location of parts of the body as well as interpreting visual information and processing language and mathematics.

  • Feel good do good thing & term for doing good without receiving anything in return
    It’s when people are more likely to help others if they are in a good mood themselves.
    Ex. I just won the lottery, so I help an old people cross the street.

  • Generalization
    The tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimuli. For example, a dog conditioned to salivate to a tone of a particular pitch and loudness will also salivate with considerable regularity in response to tones of higher and lower pitch.

  • US, UR, CS, CR

  1. Unconditioned stimulus (US) = a stimulus that elicits a response without training = food
  2. Unconditioned response (UR) = the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus = salivating when food placed in mouth
  3. Conditioned stimulus (CS) = a stimulus that through pairing with a US (i.e. after training) elicits a response = tone
  4. Conditioned response (CR) = a response to the CS that occurs as a function of training = salivating to tone after tone (CS) was repeatedly paired with food (US)
  • Priming
    Priming is a technique in which the introduction of one stimulus influences how people respond to a subsequent stimulus. Priming works by activating an association or representation in memory just before another stimulus or task is introduced.

  • Convergent and divergent thinking
    The process of figuring out a concrete solution to any problem is called Convergent Thinking. Divergent thinking is the process of thinking that explores multiple possible solutions in order to generate creative ideas. It’s a straight forward process that focuses on figuring out the most effective answer to a problem.

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Hope this helped! :grinning:

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I have more things I’m not sure about:

  • Defense mechanism of projection

  • Monocular depth cue of accommodation

  • Sensorimotor stage of development

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law

  • Stimulus discrimination

  • Reticular formation

  • Process of latency

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  • Defense mechanism of projection
    Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. Projection works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety.

  • Monocular depth cue of accommodation
    Accommodation is the process where the eye controls the focus of an object in order to be seen both in a short or long distance. It is categorized as a monocular depth cue because it is still available if one eye is closed.

  • Sensorimotor stage of development
    The sensorimotor stage is the first stage of your child’s life, according to Jean Piaget’s theory of child development. It begins at birth and lasts through age During this period, your little one learns about the world by using their senses to interact with their surroundings.

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law
    The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that there is a relationship between performance and arousal. Increased arousal can help improve performance, but only up to a certain point. At the point when arousal becomes excessive, performance diminishes.

  • Stimulus discrimination
    Discrimination results when different situations occasion different responses based on the contingencies of reinforcement.

  • Reticular formation
    The reticular formation has projections to the thalamus and cerebral cortex that allow it to exert some control over which sensory signals reach the cerebrum and come to our conscious attention. It plays a central role in states of consciousness like alertness and sleep

  • Process of latency
    Response Latency is the time span between a stimulus and a response or reaction. It is often used in psychology, especially in experiments in cognitive or social psychology. In cognitive psychology, for example, shorter response latencies can mean quicker brain processing or better memory.

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Projection is putting blame on someone or something else, like how an image is “projected” onto a screen. “It wasn’t my fault that you left the phone by the toilet.”

Monocular Depth Cue
image

Sensorimotor Stage is the first stage of cognitive development (0-2 years) in which the infant/toddler relies on their senses and limited mobility (motor) to learn and understand their environment. These limitations impact their ability to truly understand the overall picture of the world.

Yerkes-Dodson Law simply says that a moderate amount of stress is best for optimal performance. In other words, if you don’t care or you stress too much about the AP Psych exam, you won’t perform as well as if you have a just a little bit of stress.

Stimulus Discrimination is simply distinguishing one type of stimulus from another. For instance, you can tell the difference between the passing bell at school and the warning bells (for a fire drill, for instance). If Little Albert were only afraid of the one rat instead of all furry white animals, it would have been stimulus discrimination.

Reticular Formation
image

Process of Latency is a delay. I may learn about a certain Math concept in class, but won’t refer to it until I need it on homework or on a test. It remains latent until I need it. Your boss shows you how to work the register at your job, but you won’t reference it until you need it. Kind of “thanks for the info. I’ll use it when I need it.”

Hope this helps some.

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Thank you

Want to know info about:

  • Manifest content and latent content
  • Operant conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Cognitive map
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • What is replication? Why is replication important?
  • Motor cortex?
  • Statistical Significance
  • Difference between random assignment and random population
  • What is a hypothesis? Exact defintion
  • Difference between hindsight (phenomonon where look back and say you knew it all along?) bias and confirmation bias

riya is out here doing the most! thank you so much this is so helpful

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AWWW Thank you so much :relaxed:

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I’ll get back to you ASAP!

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Sorry, also Piaget’s stages and age

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And Kohlberg stages

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  • Manifest content and latent content
    Freud believed that the content of dreams is related to wish fulfillment and suggested that dreams have two types of content: manifest content and latent content. The manifest content is the actual literal subject matter of the dream while the latent content is the underlying meaning of these symbols

  • Operant conditioning
    Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence

  • Classical Conditioning
    Classical conditioning refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

  • Cognitive map
    A mental representation of one’s physical environment

  • Prefrontal cortex
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex covering the front part of the frontal lobe. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior.

  • What is replication? Why is replication important?
    Replication is a term referring to the repetition of a research study, generally with different situations and different subjects, to determine if the basic findings of the original study can be applied to other participants and circumstances.

  • Motor cortex?
    Motor Cortex refers to that part of the brain where nerve cells are engaged in planning and directing the actions of muscles and glands that are under conscious control.

  • Statistical Significance
    In principle, a statistically significant result (usually a difference) is a result that’s not attributed to chance. More technically, it means that if the Null Hypothesis is true (which means there really is no difference), there’s a low probability of getting a result that large or larger.

  • Difference between random assignment and random population
    Random selection refers to how sample members (study participants) are selected from the population for inclusion in the study. Random assignment is an aspect of experimental design in which study participants are assigned to the treatment or control group using a random procedure.

  • What is a hypothesis? Exact definition
    A testable prediction about the relationship between at least two events, characteristics, or variables.

  • Difference between hindsight (phenomenon where look back and say you knew it all along?) bias and confirmation bias
    Confirmation Bias refers to a tendency to look out only for information which supports your earlier beliefs or opinions about anything. Hindsight Bias refers to the belief that you could have predicted an event which happened in the past. Both these biases need to be avoided to make correct decisions.

  • Piaget’s Stages
    Check this out!

  • Kohlberg Stages
    Check this out!
    image

Hope all this helps! :grinning:

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  • Morphemes-
  • Phonemes-
  • Telegraphic language-
  • Two-factor theory-
  • Big five traits of consciousness-
  • Generalizability- finding of sample and apply to the population (best way is random sampling)?
  • Random sampling-
  • Predictive validity-
  • Drive-reduction theory-
  • Corpus collasum-
  • Split brain research-

Are you still there Riya?

Okay didn’t know how they are able to help us, didn’t mean to come out as that way but I understood how she explained things better than google.

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Also you can be a bit nicer with your tone, I am a new member and I paid for the cram help so I would appreciate more respect.

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