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During the period 1750-1900, the Industrial Revolution allowed Europeans to gain massive wealth by colonizing regions with natural resources and then taking over their resources without compensation. Europeans essentially sent the resources from the colonies back to Europe, then sent the finished products back to the colonies, where they sold it for a huge price. This allowed Europeans to become rich off of their colonies, who were forced to trade with their mother country. Europeans were able to easily conquer others who did not have the advanced technology they did. Also, people argued for the end of the slave trade and advocated for better working conditions. Great Britain’s Parliament passed the Factory Act of 1833, which limited the number of hours workers in factories were allowed to work per day based on their age. In India, there were tons of Independence movements, including the one in Haiti where Pierre Toussaint L’ Ouverture organized a successful slave revolt against France (mercantilist nation), who owned huge plantations in Haiti and exported coffee, sugar, and other goods to Haiti.Although many indigenous people resist largely to state expansion during the period 1750-1900 by direct means because all were inspired by nationalism and hold onto the religion culture, therefore others approached European imperialism with more peaceful means.
Indigeous people resisted imperialism and state expansion by physically fighting back. The Tongka explained to its own people that they will protect the nation and preserve peace with their army against foreigners (Doc 2). During this time, Japanese imperialism would be far more brutal than the Europeans, as Japan were on the rise to become a world power. Japan was becoming more advanced and had a strong army. The audience of the proclamation was to soldiers and civilizations of Korea. The Tonghak leaders wanted to invoke a sense of patriotism and nationalism into their people to convince them to join the Tonghak movement. This peasant rebellion advocated for equality and succeeded. The Battle of Adowa was a victory for the Ethiopians against the Italians (Doc 3). The Ethiopians wanted independence from the Italians and rose up against the foreigners. They used weapons from other Europeans to push the Italians out of Ethiopia and all of East Africa. In India, the Sequoy Mutiny rose up and fought the British because they didn’t respect Indian culture and put muslim and hindu in pig and cow fat. During this period, European Imperialism (Europeans came into China with weapons and disobeyed China’s strict limitations), this led to the Opium War in the mid19 century where the Chinese fought against the Euoprans with arms.
Indigeous people resisted imperialism and state expansion by more peaceful means other than war, such as by making protests and writing letters. The Ashanti leader announced that the Ashanti in West Africa would not stay under British control, but will still maintain peaceful relations (Doc 1). The Ashanti leader did not tolerate European control over them. As Africa became the center of slave trade and valuable goods (gold), Europeans wanted control of the land. However, the Ashanti wanted to maintain their own religion and culture, thus they avoided British control. The Queen of the Hawaiian islands wrote a letter to the US to avoid US control of her land (Doc 4). She peacefully protested for control of her own land and did not want the US to take advantage of her people. The US wanted control of Hawaii’s surplus of sugar and pineapples. She did not want to erode their relationship with the US, so she advoated in peaceful means. A Javanese aristocraft wrote a letter against Dutch colonization of their land ( Doc 5). The Dutch believed they were superior to the Java people. However, the Java people do not want to look highly upon the Europeans as they treat them as masters . They wanted to keep their culture and not kiss the Dutch rulers’ feet. The historical situation is that Europeans used social Darwinism (Charles Darwin Theory) to justify their imperialism. They believe they were the dominant people and they rose to the top through survival of the fittest. They believed they were superior to others. They believed they had a moral obligation to dominate others and make others more civilized. All in all, the indigeous people resisted imperialism and state expansion by peaceful and aggressive means.