Effect on audience

so we should say what the author does to prove his/her point, how this effects the audience (can you give a little example, please?)? How do we say the effect on the audience without assuming?
thanks so much for answering all these questions!

Refer to this:
Who is the Speaker?
 The voice that is speaking. Identification of the historical person (or group of people) who created the
primary source.
 What do we know about this historic or contemporary person?
 What role does he play in an historic event?
What is the Occasion?
 What is the time and place? The context in which the primary source was created?
 What is the Geographic and Historic intersection at which this source was produced?
Who is the Audience?
 The readers to whom this document is directed.
 The audience may be one person, a small group, or a large group; it may be a certain person or a certain
What is the Purpose?
 What is the reason behind the text
 Why was it written?
 What goal did the author have in mind?
What is the Subject?
 What is the general topic, content, or idea contained in the text?
 Summarize in a few words or phrase.
What is the Tone?
 What is the attitude expressed by the speaker?
 Examine the choice of words, emotions expressed, imagery used to determine the speaker’s attitude.

Yes! Great question! The highest-level writer will use words/phrases such as “likely” and “probably” when discussing the audience because, as you said, this analysis does require some assuming/inferencing.

Here’s an example:

By not alienating and attacking the white members of his audience, King is actually welcoming them in to help make the societal changes that he is pushing for. By welcoming them in, rather than pushing them away, many white members of his audience would be much more likely to join his cause.

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