How does upwelling affect/ relate to El Nino or La Nina?
Yes, in a la nina, cool water moves toward the surface (often through upwelling). However, upwelling doesn’t play as big of a role in an el nino because warm water dominates the ocean surface water.
What are the effects of El Niño and La Niña on both Australia and the Americas?
El Nino: there is a decrease in wind which causes the warm water near eastern Australia to spread out in the pacific ocean, towards western America. It also leads to warm weather and rain in the west coast.
La Nina: Winds are strong, so the warm spot of water gets contained near Australia. This causes dry and cold weather in the west coast of America.