What does extrapolation mean?
and what does power mean?

Extrapolation is mainly using an LSRL to estimate something outside of what is reasonable. For example, if your explanatory variable is the height of a tree, you would not use an LSRL for values of explanatory variables that are negative, because trees must have positive height.

Power = 1 - P(Type II error) - probability we correctly reject H0 when the reality is that H0 is false [correctly detecting a false H0]

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Power -The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis given that the alternate hypothesis is true. Think of it as the opposite as the TYPE 1 Error.

Extrapolation - making conclusions/estimates for data out of our collected data range. Unreliable!

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