May someone please help me with the concept of generalization in an experiment or study. Then contrasting that, some elements that would limit generalizability.
True controlled experiments are frequently done in a lab setting. Although they are the gold standard for determining causality, at least some of the time, the variable being tested is going on in an IRL setting with more noise and other, uncontrollable factors. Generalizability refers to the possibility that the clear, clean cause-effect relationship you see in the lab may not occur all or most of the time IRL because behavioral science phenomena are more complex in real life.
Generalization is the tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimuli. For example, a dog conditioned to salivate to a tone of a particular pitch and loudness will also salivate with considerable regularity in response to tones of higher and lower pitch.