if any of you guys wouldn’t mind and want to provide some feedback, you should def do that but here’s a prompt if yall want practice, and my answer:
Evaluate the extent to which the state promoted
educational institutions in the 19th century.
Prior to the 19th century, education had largely been restricted to the upper class in most ates, especially in Europe and Japan, where only noblemen and royals could experience it. However, given that the Enlightenment had fueled the prospect of having education and learning more about the role of the government and people, many desired to learn. The Scientific Revolution also unleashed new truths. So with these new truths that caused citizens of states to think and potentially revolt, states did set up restrictions on who could receive the education and how. Mainly, education was restricted to men in the upper class, but when the Industrial Revolution happened, education spread to gain a better position in the hierarchy as people began to realize that they were being taken advantage of, like when the working class in Great Britain got infuriated at the fact that most of their life was dictated by wealthy factory owners. Although education later led to the mass change of social hierarchies, especially in Britain, Belgium, and other industrialized countries, nevertheless the state promoted it by imposing education of their own will to foreign cultures and also by reinforcing its power and greatness that led people to believe it could get them better positions in their future employment opportunities. Therefore, education was becoming more widespread, but states used it to their advantage and controlled it so that they could receive more economic and political benefit for mostly themselves rather than their citizens and prevent revolts.
The state promoted education to strengthen their governments by imposing their education system onto foreign cultures and their colonial victims. In Document 2, a British administrative official urged that Britain allowed native Indians to become part of the British government very slowly and instead that Britain should maintain the most imperial power over the Indians without exposing them to too much knowledge, because if they did, the Indians would revolt. This goes to show that Britain was trying to strengthen itself and become a dominant world power by repressing and controlling the amount of knowledge they give to their colonial victims, because in the way that was detailed in teh document, Indians would work under the nationalistic pride of the British and would thus be able to enforce the British imperial crown and political authority rather than their own. Given that at the convention this speech was given at, the British East India company lost all of its trading and economic powers and were forced to succumb to the British government, it’s clear that Britain was becoming more of an imperial power and forcing their own tradition and political will onto the Indians so that the 300 million Indians who lived in the subcontinent would become a token and symbol of the enormous power the British held over them. This further shows that by maintaining and controlling economic and educational aspects of India, Britain was the only beneficiary. Additionally, in Document 5, a traveler from Scotland describes what he sees as the barbarian tradition of South Africans speaking their own native language in diplomatic documents and as a way of communicating to the British instead of using English, which was being urged and taught to them. This shows that since Britain was so focused on teaching them English, the South Africans were also a symbol of the British imperial power because they had to assimilate to British tradition by learning whatever the British wanted them to. Furthermore, this was written by a strict Catholic missionary who was trying to civilize other “barbarians” and force colonial victims to British tradition, underscoring the political and cultural power Britain held by forcing their own culture onto others. This shows the concept of Social Darwinism as well, since Britain thought itself superior to the states it colonized.
States and imperial powers didn’t only enforce and reiterate the education that they wanted on others, but they also reinforced it within themselves to further strengthen their economic and political systems. In Document 1, a Chinese student who lives in the US writes about the Chinese education system, saying that it was available to all classes in order for people of various social status to obtain a chance to become part of the bureaucracy by getting the knowledge to pass the civil service examination. This shows that the Chinese were reinforcing their political structure within their own country because they only provided education to people of all classes in order to make their government more merit based to run more smoothly, because as a bureaucracy, the people had to be educated enough to hold centralized power by knowing Confucian ideals in the education the Chinese provided. Also, because this was written by a Chinese student who lives in the US as an exchange student, it’s likely that he was reminiscing on his home country and how easy it was to obtain an education, because in the US, the government allowed limited educational opportunities to those of other races. This is further supported by the Chinese Exclusion Act that was approved just two years after this document, galvanizing the fact that the US’s inherent racism didn’t allow for an equitable education to other races because they thought their political system was better without those of “inferior” races. Also, in Document 4, men in Germany are described as serious and uniformly performing their customary routine of schooling because they want tog ain a good opportunity in the future in regards to employment. This shows that men in Germany were very serious about their education because they wanted to represent their country in the most professional way since they would continue to carry this education in the government and in the economy which would allow them greater opportunity and a greater contribution to the representation of Germany. Considering that this was written by a British traveler, it shows that her intent is likely to showcase the development of other countries’ education systems to benefit her own in Britain. Also, since Germany was newly unified at this time since they had just become a collective state in 1871, the rise of scholasticism increased their political legitimacy and made them look more appealing to other countries. Finally, in Document 3, an image of the Japanese Ministry of Education is shown in the Japanese capital of Tokyo as quite colossal and protected by an ornate fence. This shows that the Japanese were trying to enforce the strength of their political system by using their educational building as a representational system of their power. Given that the Meiji Restoration had just occurred in Japan, it shows that the emperor was trying to enforce the political power of Odo, later turned to Tokyo, as the heart of Japan because it had an impressive piece of educational architecture that would serve as an idol and reference of Japanese homogeneity.
Throughout the newly found education systems that states were enforcing to many, women had not been given much of an opportunity to also participate. However, as time went on, the social hierarchies changed as women received an education due to their revolutionary thought, invoked by the Enlightenment. Thus, even though social hierarchies did change primarily due to education, the state used educational systems to their own advantage to enforce their political power onto others and bolster themselves, or to provide more opportunity to its own citizens to illustrate the impressiveness of their economy and government later on. And because the state controlled what flowed into the brains of others, they were able to limit revolting thought; however, as education increased to more classes, colonial states were unable to prevent this, and eventually, uprisings were inevitable.