Can someone specifically explain these? I am still confused on them, as well as the developmental stages…
Welcome! Good question! The id, ego, and superego are parts of our personality that help us deal with internal conflicts (such as wanting things). We are born dominated by the id, which wants what it wants immediately and in large quantities (“I want all the candy right now!”). The superego is the rules of society and self-restraint that tries to counteract the id (“I shouldn’t have any candy because it will give me cavities.”). The ego’s task is to moderate between the id and superego (“I will have a small portion of candy and brush my teeth right after.”).
The stage of development involve an area of our bodies where most of our attention is focused when we are growing up. For example, the oral stage involves us eating or not eating as babies being the focus of our attention. However, if our needs (in this case, for food) are not met we can grow up stuck, of “fixated” at a stage because of our unmet needs or unresolved problems (our parents did not feed us consistently and left us hungry, so since then we may be very talkative, quiet, or argumentative). The stages the follow (oral, anal, phallic, latency period, genital) work in largely the same way.
The parts of personality have been asked about in the past, but not these stages of development. They are fair game, but and not really a part of modern psychological science.