can you elaborate more on how to develop a line of reasoning and build on it
Rhetorical Appeals (these are not devices)
● Ethos: an appeal to shared values, ethics, or respected authority
● Logos: an appeal based on facts and logic
● Pathos: an appeal based on emotion - creating an emotion in the audience in order to change their mind.
(If you want to make an appeal - these are the tools you use to make it)
- Anaphora: A type of parallelism, with the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines, phrases, or sentences
- Antithesis: two opposites are placed close together to achieve a contrasting effect.
- Connotation: All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests rather than the literal definition.
- Diction: a speaker’s choice of words
- Figurative Language: words or phrases not to be taken literally
- Imagery: description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
- Irony: the use of words to convey a meaning that is opposite of the literal meaning or a reversal of expectations
- Parallel Structure: the repetition of the grammatical structure of similar words and phrases
- Juxtaposition: putting two things next to each other to make an argument
- Allusion: A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, work of art, song, etc. that exists outside the text.
Types of Figurative Language
● Hyperbole: exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
● Metaphor: a figure of speech making a comparison by referring to one thing as another
● Personification: a figure of speech in which an object or an animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
● Simile: making a comparison using “like” or “as”
● Work chronologically through the text. Analyze what the writer does at the beginning, in the middle, and at the
end of the piece. Use your structure verbs!
● Claim : identify which section of the speech you are discussing & state the main ideas of that section.
Format: Writer’s last name + structure verb + his/her + type of text + by + strong verb + the main idea of
- Ex. Reagan begins his tribute to the Challenger astronauts by acknowledging that the shuttle accident has
appropriately postponed his planned State of the Union address and by expressing the depth of his and
his wife’s personal grief.
● Evidence: Identify & provide a specific example for one rhetorical strategy used by the writer.
- Ex. He appeals to the mournful emotions of the audience by admitting that he and his wife are “pained to
the core,” that this day is rightfully a “day for mourning and remembering,” and the accident is “truly a
● Analysis: Explain HOW the rhetorical strategy helps the writer achieve the purpose and state what its EFFECT is
on the audience.
- Ex. He joins in this time of mourning in order to unify the nation and humbly admits that “we share this
pain with all of the people of our country.” This outpouring of emotion from the president conveys a
calming tone that reassures the nation that their grief is both understandable and proper.
NOTE: Repeat formula as needed for each body paragraph.
● Most body paragraphs should have at least 2 examples.
● It’s a good idea to have 3 body paragraphs: one for the beginning of the piece, one for the middle of the piece, and
one for the end.
this is just formatting and examples, it doesnt directly adress the line of reasonging
Your line of reasoning is simply how you connect each of your body paragraphs to each other and to your thesis.
Strong debatable thesis
Body paragraph 1 shows how one of the speaker’s choices helps him achieve his purpose
Body paragraph 2 shows how another choice helps him achieve his purpose. This second choice, combined with choice 1, makes the passage even more convincing to this particular audience.
Body paragraph 3 shows how a third choice cinches the speaker’s purpose by building on choices 1 and 2.
Conclusion contextualizes the audience, showing why this particular argument was effective and/or necessary.