[Prompt] Unit 1 Practice: Approaches and Applications

These questions are modeled after Free Response Questions (FRQs) of the AP Psychology Exam. Below would most likely represent one of two questions that could appear on the FRQ.
The instructions on the most recent FRQs have included the following: It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed, using appropriate psychological terminology.

Use the items below to assess your mastery of knowledge of the topics below, but also how you might apply your knowledge to present your “cogent argument.”

  1. Psychologists are interested in the way people think, make decisions, behave, and interact with others. Describe how each of the following approaches to psychology may address a psychological issue.
    A. Humanistic Domain
    B. Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Domain
    C. Behaviorism
    D. Biological Domain
    E. Cognitive Domain

  2. While psychology is often thought of as a field that involves mental health disorders, many psychologists practice their work in different ways. Describe how each of the following fields might best be able to serve an academic/school setting:
    A. Psychometrics
    B. Human Factors
    C. Industrial-Organizational

DUE DATE: 4/22/20

a. Humans are moralistic creatures that have the capacity for values to make decisions in a positive light. Their behaviors will be determined if all of their basic needs are met in the hierarchy of needs.
b. Humans’ decisions, thoughts, and behavior are deeply impacted by the interactions between the id, ego, and superego in their unconscious. They also may be determined by fixations from childhood.
c. Humans learn behaviors through conditioning with punishments and reinforcements.
d. Human thoughts, behaviors, and interactions are influenced heavily by their genetics and DNA.
e. Human thoughts, behaviors, and interactions are determined by the brain’s processes of language and problem-solving.

a. Psychometrics evaluate the tools used to study psychology and could serve a school setting by making sure the tools used by students in psychology classes are good for their usage
b. Human factors are the impact of social beings on an academic environment. If human factors are working hard in the classroom, that will positively benefit the academic environment.
c. Industrial-Organization studies psychology through the lens of the workplace. This will be able to improve the teachers work together in their office space and communal spaces.

1
a)Humanistic domains serve to improve the lives of people. If a person has a lot of stress, psychologists will find ways to reduce their stress through meditation, jounrnaling, etc.

b) Psychodynmaic domains looks at the one’s past to determine behavior. From a psychdynamic perspective, If a person has lots of stress, they will relate it back to a childhood event.

c) Behaviorism is studying how the environment shapes people and uses punishments and reinforcements. From this perspective, constant stress of a person can be associated with their environment being very stressful.

d) The biological domain focuses on genetics of a person. If someone has acute stress disorder, it could be related back to their parents or grandparents who’ve also had this.

e) The cognitive domain focuses on thought processes and language. They would look into how a person’s stress can affect their memory functions.

2
a)Pscyhometrics are the tools used in research. In a school setting, this field would look into how can we study students’ stress levels accurately.

b) Human factors looks at how machines and people interact and how machines can be easier and safer to use. This field will look into how to make smartboards more easily and accessible to use for learning.

c) Industrial-Organizationl looks at workplace practices and the workplace environment as well. This field would look into how lesson plans can be made better so students can learn more efficently.

  1. a. In the Humanistic Domain, psychologists are concerned with how individuals can reach their full potential and that all humans are inherently good. This domain may address a psychological issue such as a counselor giving someone career advice for someone who feels that they have not done enough to be the best in their field and have not lived up to their full potential.

b. In the Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Domain, psychologists look into the sub consciousnesses of patients to see what issues from their childhood have affected the way they perceive and think now, through dream analysis and introspection. This approach to psychology may address a psychological issue in an individual by having a patient describe their childhood experiences with dogs to explain why they may be currently terrified of dogs.

c. In the Behavioral approach to psychology, psychologists look at the way a human physically reacts to a stimulus, or after they have familiarized themselves with an action. This approach may be used to address a psychological issue such as a drug addict reaching for a cigarette every time they feel stressed.

d. In the Biological Domain of psychology, psychologists are concerned with the way the body reacts due to a psychological issue. They may scan the brain, or measure the levels of chemicals and hormones in the body. This approach to psychology may address a psychological issue as lower levels of serotonin may be a cause for depression in some individuals.

e. In the Cognitive Domain of psychology, psychologists look at the way individuals interpret and solve issues. This may be used to address a psychological issue as someone who sees the world as inherently bad and is pessimistic may determine the reason why an individual deals with depression.

  1. a. Psychometrics is the analysis of data and finding relationships and/or recurring patterns. This field may help serve an academic/school setting best by looking at past experimental studies of the way students learn best, and finding ways that teachers can best help students do better in school.

b. In Human Factors, psychologists look at the way people interact with objects, and determine ways to make them easier for them to use. This may best be used in an academic/school setting, such as looking at the way children use lab tables, and determining the features best suited to make them more efficient for them to use.

c. In the Industrial-Organizational field, psychologists look at workers in a workplace environment and determine what they can do to help workers work more efficiently while taking care of themselves and keeping good relations. This is helpful in an academic/school environment by offering facilities to teachers and staff to take care of themselves so that they can fully focus on their jobs during the day.

Humanistic Domain is when psychologists believe that external factors such as family issues are causing distress in an individual. A psychologist might say that a person is depressed after looking at ethical values and seeing that maybe it’s due to issues relating to loss or separation. Psychodynamic Domain is when a psychologist may think that these issues might come from some things that a person is unaware of. They may ask the person to use structuralism to find out what is really going on and how they can treat it. Psychologists that view behaviorism wonders whether a person is acting a specific sort of way due to past conflicts/events that have impacted a person in a way. If a person has PTSD then maybe something has really troubled them and potentially scarred them for the rest of their lives in the past. Biological Domain is when psychological issues aren’t really determined by external factors but more physical factors, such as DNA or physical disorders the person may have. If a psychologist that believes in biological domain looks at a person with PTSD and may wonder if their parents had it as well and might see it as being passed down. The cognitive domain is when psychologists look at issues relating to thoughts on a regular basis. A psychologist might look at anorexia as the person potentially telling themselves constantly that they are overweight when they really aren’t.

Psychometrics is when psychologists present psychological factors in numerical values, such as displaying depression from 1-10; one being happy and ten being clinically depressed. This is most commonly used in a school setting with nurses/psychologists in order to help a large number of clients in a limited amount of time. Human factors are looking at what is potentially causing the behaviors a person is emitting. In a high-stress environment, nurses and psychologists are needed to tend to these matters in order for these environments to ultimately work as efficiently as possible. When looking at industrial-organizational, this mainly means that they try to improve specific qualities of an environment, such as improving unproductive/stressful areas, as best as they can.

Scores with hierarchy of needs.

Scores with use of Freudian terms.

Scores using terms punishments/reinforcements

Scores

Scores

Does not score…what types of tools specifically?

Does not score. Look this term up.

Scores with reference to workplace environment

The humanistic domain is concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one’s potential. This can explain how free will and one’s potential for personal growth guide their behavior and mental processes.

The psychodynamic domain focuses on unconscious thoughts or desires. An individual’s internal conflicts can explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation.

Behaviorism focuses on how environmental conditions and stimuli affect an individual’s behavior. For example, if a child was raised in an abusive household, this could explain why she is very quiet and reserved.

The biological domain focuses on the physiological side of behavior. The chemical and biological processes in the nervous and endocrine systems are related to an organism’s behavior.

The cognitive domain focuses mainly on thinking, reasoning, and memory. The way in which an individual receives, stores, and processes information allows for psychologists to understand behavior.

Psyshometricians are usually found in colleges, universities, testing facilities, and research firms. They focus on methods for retrieving and analyzing psychological data. They can revise aptitude tests and create new ones.

Human factors is the discipline that examines human behavior to find the most effective developments and creations that will be safe for humans. They can be found in the school setting analyzing behaviors of students and explain possible reasons for their behavior. For example, human factors psychologists see a person bullying another student at school and explain that the reason for it is the bully is having problems at home and is taking it out on the innocent student.

industrial/ organizational psychologists emphasize on the importance of productivity and quality of work life. They try to understand and enhance the wellness and development of individuals. Although they are mostly found in the workplace (businesses, factories, research facilities), they can also help students maximize their productivity in studying while maintaining a healthy a stressless life.

A. Suzie walks into a therapy session that endorses humanistic psychology. She says her problem is that she seems to be depressed. The psychologist would associate her depression with a lack of esteem according to the Maslow hierarchy of needs. They would then suggest that Suzie become an entrepreneur to gain respect from others.
B. According to a psychodynamic therapist, Suzie’s depression is caused by her unconscious negative thoughts. In order to get rid of her depression, she should meditate every day in order to bring herself to be more positive.
C. Whether Suzie is depressed or not can be observed through her behaviour. The behaviourist therapist notices that Suzie seems to rarely smile or get out of bed, and diagnoses her with depression.
D. Suzie’s depression, as said by a biological therapist, results from her brain chemicals. She should put more serotonin in her body by taking medicine!
E. To collect data from their patient, cognitive psychologists would gather participant reports, such as self perceived surveys.

A. Psychometrics can be used to find tools that accurately measure the stress levels of students.
B. Human factors looks at how people and objects can interact. Laptops and phones may be improved in the school setting to better facilitate teaching.
C. The industrial-organizational field observe the workplace setting. At a school environment, the teachers’ lesson plans and general wellbeing should be monitored to promote an academic environment.

A. The humanistic domain focuses on the free will and human condition. An example of a humanistic psychologists would be Abraham Maslow. Psychologist would address a psychological issue as a result of being unable to reach self-actualization or satisfy other needs in the hierarchy of needs. One’s decisions making, behavior and thinking would be affected by how high one is in the hierarchy of needs.
B. Psychodynamic/ Psychoanalytic domain focuses on the unconscious and conscious part of the brain. Developed by Sigmund Freud, this domain will affect how one behaves, thinking, and decision making can be affected by the unconscious, including the id, ego, and superego. They can also be affected by repressed memories from childhood.
C. Behaviorism focuses on the aspects of observable behavior and learning. One’s decision making, thinking, and behavior can be affected by how one learned to act in situations through punishments and reinforcements.
D. Biological domain emphasizes the brain structure. An individual’s behavior, decision making, and thought process can be affected on how their brain is genetically wired.
E. The cognitive domain emphasizes how perception and thinking. How one perceives the world or situation and personal thoughts/ beliefs can affect the behavior, decision making, and thinking.

A. Psychometric is a field of study associated with the theory and technique of psychological measurement. This field might be able to help measure experiments and their results.
B. Human Factors focuses on the interaction of people, machines, and physical environments. This shows how the students interact with the computers and the classroom setting they are in.
C. Industrial-Organizational is the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimize human behavior in working environments. This is can improve the productivity of students, train students or implement systems.

  1. (A) The humanistic domain focuses on the strengths of people and uses empathy and unconditional positive regard. This domain forgets the past of a person and focuses on who the person is, concerning their strengths and weaknesses, and accepts this person.
    (B) The psychodynamic domain focuses on a person’s subconscious mind, including subconscious conflicts and memories, as well as their decrease mechanisms.
    © Behaviorism focuses on punishments and reinforcements, and how a person’s environment shapes them.
    (D) The biological domain focuses on the body, more specifically the brain, the nervous system, and the endocrine system, and how these systems affect us.
    (E) The cognitive domain looks at one’s thought processes, including problem-solving, language, and thinking.

  2. (A) Psychometrics studies the tools that are used in psychological research. In an academic setting, one may be able to use psychometrics by utilizing in intelligence tests to study student intelligence accurately.
    (B) Human factors looks at the design of tools and making tools work well for a person. In an academic setting, one could use human factors domains to create a manageable planner that helps students organize their assignments in one place.
    © The industrial-organizational domain looks at workplace environments and practices. In an academic setting, this domain can be used to see how the academic setting can improve to help students and teachers by, for example, creating easier access to teachers for students and therefore creating a more positive school environment.

1
a The humanistic domain of psychology is the field of psychology interested in the idea that everything people do is in search of love and acceptance. A psychologist could use this to address a psychological issue in various ways, by seeing how this issue or incident could have been caused by not having or seeking this acceptance.
b The psychodynamic/ psychoanalytical domain of psychology is interested with identifying peoples unconscious desires and drives and seeing how that affects what they do. Psychologists could use this to identify why someone did or thought about something that the person themselves cannot identify the reason why.
c The field of behaviorism within psychology is very interested in how people develop and learn based on the associations of behavior with the people and world around them. If someone did something bad like smoking, but their whole family smoked, a behaviorist would see it perhaps as a learned behavior.
d. the biological domain of psychology is that which is interested in how the physical body affects the psychological state. The biological psychologist is interested in perhaps the hormone levels and the neurotransmitters, as well as the function of nervous system.

a The field of psychometrics is very concerned with the measuring of cognitive function. This could serve a school setting well. Schools everywhere do several kinds of testing to measure aptitude and content absorbency, but it would help to have a trained professional analyzing and making for tailored testing
b Human factors is a field that studies the needs of people especially those with disabilities and challenges.this would be so helpful in schools not only to make the building and facilities adjustable and habitable for all people, but to adjust teaching style and curriculum.
c Industrial Organizational psychology is a field concerned with the safety, productivity, and efficiency of the workplace and all people involved. This specialization could maximize productivity in not only teachers but in turn students.

The Humanistic Domain is a significant perspective that emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth. This might interest someone that addresses a psychological issue because in order to understand the psychology of an individual it is important to consider the possibilities in the ability for growth of said individual.

The psychodynamic psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior. The way that this approach of psychology might address a psychological issue is due to the fact that this particular branch of psychology is commonly known to treat people with psychological disorders. Usually people are treated by accessing the unconsiouss mind through treatments.

Behaviorism is the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. When ooking at how this approach of psychology might address psychological issues it is important to consider the fact that this branch wishes to study how a person responds to certain stimulus and also how that would reflect on a persons behavior.

The biological domain of psychology studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes. In order for someone to succesfully apply this knowledge to address a psychological issue, this type of psychology goes into the nature vs. nurture debate, in which it studies the genes and hormones and brain structures that contribute to a person acting the way they act.

Finally, the cognitive domain of psychology studies all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. This specific branch of psychology is extremely valuable when looking into how people learn and understand the world around them. It is important to understand the way the brain encodes and processes information in order to properly understand many psychological issues.

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