# [Prompt] Unit 3 Practice: Sensation and Perception

These questions are modeled after Free Response Questions (FRQs) of the AP Psychology Exam. Below would most likely represent one of two questions that could appear on the FRQ. The instructions on the most recent FRQs have included the following: It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed, using appropriate psychological terminology.

Use the items below to assess your mastery of knowledge of the topics below, but also how you might apply your knowledge to present your “cogent argument.”

Bardo went to a local art exhibit in a nearby town. He saw many paintings, learned quite a bit from the museum’s tour guide, and purchased a museum t-shirt, which he wore the next day.

A. Explain how each of the following might have contributed to Bardo’s viewing of the paintings.

• cones
• bottom-up processing
• transduction

B. Explain how each of the following might have contributed to Bardo’s conversation with the museum tour guide.

• cochlea
• frequency theory

C. Explain how adaptation could contribute to Bardo’s wearing of the new shirt.

Cones allow the eye to see different colors other than black and white. Without having the ability to view these colors, it is possible that Bardo wouldn’t have been as influenced as he is now. Bottom-up processing is looking at different parts of something before looking at the overall image. If there was a hidden image or something Bardo would’ve wanted to find in those paintings, he would first look at specific parts of that painting in order to find that image once he put all those pieces together. Transduction is the ability to process light into energy or electrical processes. Without transduction, Bardo wouldn’t be able to see the painting and as a result, wouldn’t be as interested.

The cochlea allows Bardo to hear what he’s saying and what the museum tour guide is saying when responding to his question. Frequency theory is in this scenario how Bardo interprets the pitch of what he’s hearing from the museum tour guide. Without the pitch, Bardo wouldn’t be able to understand the museum tour guide.

Bardo obviously loved the museum and its paintings with the purchase of his new shirt. He has learned about the paintings from the museum’s tour guides and as a result, he has now grown into liking these types of things and in the end, he has bought the shirt.

1. Cones detect color, bright light, and fine detail. This could have contributed to Bardo’s viewing of the painting and allow him to see the many vibrant colors of the paintings. Bottom-up processing is when the details or features of a figure are noticed before the whole. This would have allowed Bardo to notice the brush strokes, smears of paint, and the painter’s details before he saw the painting as a whole. Transduction occurs at the back of the eyeball, where cones and rods convert light waves into electrical impulses to be sent to the brain. This might have contributed to Bardo’s viewing of the paintings as the light waves from the painting hit the retina of Bardo’s eye, where the image was converted to a neural impulse, allowing for the brain to take in the image.
2. The cochlea is where the sound receptors are located in the ears and sound is converted into neural impulses to be sent to the brain. When speaking to the museum tour guide, the sound vibrations would go through his cochlea, where it would be converted and sent to his brain so he could understand what the guide was saying. The frequency theory is that the rate of the pulses of the neural impulses that travel up the auditory nerve is the same as the frequency of the sound that is being heard. If the museum tour guide was speaking quietly to Bardo, the rate at which the pulses traveled up the auditory nerve would correspond to the speaker’s quiet and low frequency.
3. Sensory adaptation is when less neural impulses are being fired less in the body, and the body has gotten used to the stimulus. This could contribute to Bardo’s wearing of the new shirt as once he puts it on, he will be more self-aware of the fact that he is wearing a shirt, until his sensory neurons fire less and he has gotten used to the stimulus.

A)
Cones can help you see colors other than black and white and fine details. When Bardo looks at the paintings he sees the different colors in the artworks and the fine details of the brush strokes.

Bottom-up processing is looking at parts of an object/ image and then looking at an object/image as a whole. Bardo sees a museum shirt but first sees the parts of the shirt such as the image on the shirt, the sleeves, and the length before looking at the museum shirt as a whole.

Transduction is converting one form of energy to another. When the museum guide is speaking to Bardo, they first go through Bardo’s ear canal and cochela as sound vibrations. When it goes to hi suditory nerve the sound vibration sturn into neural messages for the brain to interpret that the museum guide was talking about the history of one of the paintings shown.

B.
The cochlea is in the middle ear and is used to to transform sound vibrations into a neural message for the brain to interpret. As the museum guide is talking, sound vibartions go through Brado’s ear canal into his cochela. The cochela’s basilar membrane determines what pitch or amplitude the sound will be heard by wher ethe cohlea fluid hits in the basilar membrane, and goes to the auditory nerve which is then transformed into a neural message to the brain that the guide was explaing to Brado the expressionist techniques that the artist used in the painting.

Frequency theory is the pitch and amplitude that we hear matches the impulses sent to the auditory nerve. If the sound vibrations had a high pitch and amplitude, the auddiory nerve will send it to the brain as a high pitch and amplitude which might make Brado cover up his ears to the loudness of the sound.

C
Adaption is when we have a weakened sensation due to a stimulis being there for a prologned period of time. When Brado first puts on the shirt, he can feel the softness of the shirt, but as time goes on his senses adapt to the shirt and he doesn’t feel anything when wearing the shirt.

A. Cones are the retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that functions in daylight or well lit areas. The cones detect the fine details and give rise to color sensations. The cones in Bardo’s eyes let him see the colors in the paintings in the museum’s lights.
Bottom-up processing is analysis that begins with the sensory receptors works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information. Basically one would start by viewing the fine details which would lead to the conclusion of the whole image. Bardo would see the painting’s color, brush strokes, shapes to conclude what the painting is as a whole image. An example would be that one would see the green paint, brain strokes, and oval shape to determine that the painting is a leaf.
Transduction is the transforming of stimulus energy into neural impulses the brain can interpret. The transduction process allows Bardo understand what he is seeing. For example, the sensory receptors would see a blob of green, but the transduction process would turn that blob of color into a neural impulses that the brain could understand and now the meaningless green blob has turned into a leaf.

B. Cochlea is a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that triggers nerve impulses when sound waves travel. The cochlea would receive the museum tour guide’s voice sounds and trigger the hair cells in it which transduce the sounds into a neural impulse and send it to the brain to understand. For example, without the cochlea, Bardo would not be able to hear the tour guide’s voice and understand it.
Frequency theory states that the rate of the hair cells move when the sound waves pass correspond to the frequency or pitch. For example, a high pitch sound would make the hair cells move faster. Bardo is able to hear the muesum tour guide’s voice because his hair cells move according to the pitch of the tour guide’s voice.

C. Adaptation is the action or process of becoming adjusted to a new environment or condition. Bardo had purchased the museum t-shirt because he ajusted to the environment and wanted to fit in and become a part of it.

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