[Prompt] Unit 7 FRQ Practice: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality

These questions are modeled after Free Response Questions (FRQs) of the AP Psychology Exam. Below would most likely represent one of two questions that could appear on the FRQ.

The instructions on the most recent FRQs have included the following: It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed, using appropriate psychological terminology.

Use the items below to assess your mastery of knowledge of the topics below, but also how you might apply your knowledge to present your “cogent argument.”

A. People are motivated to do certain things. What motivates a person can vary and be based on different psychological theories and concepts. Explain how each of the following motivates a person to be or do something in their lives.

  • Self-efficacy
  • Self-Actualization
  • Lateral hypothalamus
  • Incentives
  • Catharsis
  • Cognitive Dissonance

Self-efficacy can motivate a person to do something in their lives because it is the idea of how competent one is. On a test, one who has a high self-efficacy for example will believe that they have the potential to do well on that test, and are diligent in their studies and when taking the exam, as they believe their abilities are good enough to pass the exam, increasing their motivation. On the other hand, low self-efficacy will lead to a lack of motivation as one feel incompetent and less effective in their ideas of passing the exam. This will lead to low self-esteem, or a low feeling of worth, and cause them to not be as prepared or engaged in their studies for the exam.

Self-actualization can lead someone to be motivated to be or do something in their lives as this concept of Maslows in the hierarchy of needs is towards the top, meaning that one has satisified physical and psychological needs, like self esteem. For example, self-actualization can cause someone to paint for intrinsic motivation without any need for making money through painting. It increases one’s motivation as it allows for one to discover their potentials and self-fulfillment in their life.

The lateral hypothalamus can motivate someone to be or do something as it regulates arousal and hunger. If someone is hungry, the body will stimulate motivation and arousal for them to go and eat.

Incentives can motivate someone to be or do something as they are a form of positive reinforcement. For example, a parent promises candy to a child if they finish their homework, which leads to more motivation for the child to get his homework doen in order to recevie that award that he so desperately wants. These incentives help to increase the behavior and be sure that the child can do his homeowrk again the next day in awaiting that cnady.

Catharsis can motivate someone to be or do something as it is a form of releasing aggression in order to relieve the emotions inside or the further aggressive urges. For example, a person who is angry at a loss can take the aggression out on a pillow, which then helps to relieve the tensions and stress of the body, allowing him to enter a relaxed state and calming feeling. This elevates his emotions and allows him to be motivated to move on and hang out with his friends.

Cognitive dissonance can motivate someone to be or do something as the awareness of a behavior having an action that is harmful and conflicting the mind, one lead to that person making sure the reltionship between the mind and action is consistent. For example, a smoker who realizes that it causes cancer will take the motivation and measures to fulfillt hat tendency to create consistent behavior with their actions and attitudes by learnign to quit smoking.

Also you will be grading these right?

a) self-efficacy is the capacity of an individual to believe in their abilities to complete a task. If high, the person will have a good perception and trust in their achievement of goals and be motivated enough to do anything.
Self-actualization represents is a tendency to be fulfilled and be comfortable with who you are, and actualizing to get to their ideal self. If a person reaches their full potential or wants to, he or she will be motivated enough to get to any goal. It is important for the need for actualization to upgrade and find happiness and achievement.
The lateral hypothalamus is the hunger center or what causes someone to eat. The eating and fulfilling this motive causes arousal and satisfaction. If a person is hungry the individual will be motivated to accomplish this external motivation.
Incentives are pulled by desires meaning that through learning and knowing our needs, it makes someone acts the way it acts whether he or she will gain a reward or to avoid punishment. it will motivate to drive a person to choose their “path”.
Catharsis can be described as a spark of insight someone has on themselves which motivates this individual to get through some situation or issue. they will eventually have the emotion to “keep going”.
cognitive dissonance is the discomfort of some habit a person has which causes this individual a hard time. this can be resolve by finding strategies to break the bad habit or discomfort. this will challenge a person and finding the resonance of why they got the bad habit in the first place and how to quit. the motivation drives to the goal of satisfaction.

Self-efficacy is the idea that one who strongly believes that they are capable of accomplishing something will be able to do it through hard work and diligence. A person who wishes to be in a high position such as a CEO for a company will have to have a lot of trust and belief in themselves that they are capable of accomplishing something and controlling their own destiny by hard work. Self actualization is the idea of reaching one’s full potential, and is at the top of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Someone who wants to be successful and make their mark in the world using their strengths and abilities would desire self actualization. Lateral hypothalamus is where hunger is stimulated. This may motivate a person to search for food. Incentives use prizes, rewards, and any other type of external stimulus in order for a person to be motivated. An example of this is the government reducing people’s taxes if they invest in renewable energy resources. Catharsis is the release of one’s internal emotions and tension in order to feel relief. This may motivate someone to understand why they are feeling the way that they are and how they can alleviate the issue. Cognitive Dissonance is when an individual is inconsistent with their thoughts and beliefs with their behavior and attitude. Someone who believes in being eco-friendly may feel cognitive dissonance when they forgot their water bottle at home and had to buy a water bottle because they were extremely thirsty. This may motivate a person to be better in the future and be consistent with their actions and beliefs.

Self eficacy is the belief that a person is capable of achieving a certain task. This can be used as motivation in a person’s life because it can show them that they are qualified. For example if a person wants to learn how to play an instrument and they go about learning with self efficacy, then they will be more confident when learning and won’t give up as easy, for they know they can accomplish the task.
Self-Actualization is the belief of reaching one’s full potential and is the top tier on the social hierarchy of needs. For example if someone felt like they were not currently their best self and had a sense of belief that they should reach self-actualization, then they would be more likely to try new things and stay motivated in order for them to reach that best self.
The lateral hypothalamus is the part of the brain that lets you know if you are hungry. This motivates a person to do something in their lives because it is involved in a physiological necessity, hunger. For example your lateral hypothalamus will let the body know that you are hungry, thus motivating you to satisfy that hunger and eat.
Incentives are rewards given to encourage a specidic behavior. This could be used as a motivation in a person’s life because it will make the person want to keep doing that activity in order to receive that incentive. For example if a mom uses an incentive of icecream for whenever a child cleans her room. That incentive (the icecream) will then motivate the daughter to continue that behavior.
Catharsis is the emotional release a person experiences. This can be used as motivation because for example if a person is feeling really tense and stress, they will then have the tendency to get rid of that stress, which can be done through catharsis. As a result, catharsis is being used as a motivator for the relief of stress.
Cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort that occurs when your actions go against your beliefs. This could be a motivator in someone’s life because if someone feels an imbalance, they will then try to fix their wrongful actions. As a result a person will use the cognitive dissonance to motivate them to demonstrate their beliefs and be a better person

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