Rhetorical Appeals

Can I use an appeal alone to argue that the author is achieving a certain purpose? For an ex, like can I have a whole body on ethos and pathos itself. Or do I have to use it in conjunction with a device? For example, pathos is the claim that I am making but my evidence has to be of a device like imagery that helps create that pathos. Does this make sense?

Body Paragraphs :
● Topic sentence (one choice or strategy)
● Evidence, Commentary, Evidence, Commentary, Relate back to thesis
● Try to use short quotes and incorporate them into your own sentence.
● Have more sentences of commentary than sentences of evidence.
● Commentary/analysis is VERY important to the score!

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Rhetorical Appeals (these are not devices)
● Ethos: an appeal to shared values, ethics, or respected authority
● Logos: an appeal based on facts and logic
● Pathos: an appeal based on emotion - creating an emotion in the audience in order to change their
mind.
Rhetorical Devices
(If you want to make an appeal - these are the tools you use to make it)

  1. Anaphora: A type of parallelism, with the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of
    successive lines, phrases, or sentences
  2. Antithesis: two opposites are placed close together to achieve a contrasting effect.
  3. Connotation: All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests rather than the literal
    definition.
  4. Diction: a speaker’s choice of words
  5. Figurative Language: words or phrases not to be taken literally
  6. Imagery: description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
  7. Irony: the use of words to convey a meaning that is opposite of the literal meaning or a reversal of
    expectations
  8. Parallel Structure: the repetition of the grammatical structure of similar words and phrases
  9. Juxtaposition: putting two things next to each other to make an argument
  10. Allusion: A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, work of art, song, etc. that
    exists outside the text.
    Types of Figurative Language
    ● Hyperbole: exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
    ● Metaphor: a figure of speech making a comparison by referring to one thing as another
    ● Personification: a figure of speech in which an object or an animal is given human feelings, thoughts,
    or attitudes
    ● Simile: making a comparison using “like” or “as”
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You definitely want to use it in conjunction with a device. Pathos is not something that a speaker or writer just sprinkles into their essay or address. While appealing to their audience’s emotions is important, they use devices to achieve that emotional appeal.

1 Like

thank you!!

gotcha! thanks so much!

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