[SAQ] 7.4 Economy in the Interwar Period c. 1900 to present

Lázaro Cárdenas–in Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico–signing land reform laws.
Watercolor painting by Roberto Cueva del Río, 1938

BEFORE ANSWERING: Read the guiding post below by @eric-beckman

  1. Identify ONE way that image above reflects political changes during or after the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century.

  2. Describe how ONE state outside of Mesoamerica addressed land reform in the 20th century.

  3. Explain how the development depicted in the image above reflects a social or cultural continuity in Mexico in the first half of the 20th century.

How to Submit
Reply to this thread with your 3-part answer.

Deadline for submission:
Posts submitted after the deadline are not guaranteed a response.

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Hello World History people!
I wrote this question in response to a couple of things that could be resources for addressing this question.

  1. The course and exam description suggests students read an excerpt from a speech by President Cardenas. You can read an excerpt here. The suggestion pairs this speech with a document from the USSR with Stalin addressing industrialization and agriculture. So, students might consider Soviet and also Chinese communism in responses.

  2. Episodes 28 and 40 of the Historias podcast have gotten me thinking about how the Cold War in Latin America began after the Mexican Revolution. I’ll be discussing this in my upcoming live stream on the Cold War.

See you in the responses!

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  1. One way that image reflects political changes during or after the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century is that before the revolution, the rich owned upwards of 90% of the land. However, post-revolution, leaders like Emiliano Zapata helped redistribute land to the poor.
  2. Another country that conducted similar land redistributions was USSR. They did this by claiming all the farmer’s land as government land and practiced collectivization.
  3. This development depicted in the image above reflects social or cultural continuity in Mexico in the first half of the 20th century because it shows Mexico’s deep connection with its culture. For example, in the background of the image, it shows men and women wearing traditional Mexican clothing. Furthermore, in the first half of the 20th century, Mexico continued to strengthen connections with its culture and appease the native peoples.

A. The image above reflects a shift from more democratic ideals to communist ideals. The idea of communism was appealing to the lower class because it offered security, something that they were lacking.

B. Land reform was also addressed in communist China. Mao Zedong pushed for land reform when he establish communism in China in 1949. The land reform in China took away from agricultural lands, putting a strain on food supplies.

C. A continuity depicted in the photo above is how women had a lower social status than men. There were only two women shown above, one was caring for a child and the other was presenting Cárdenas with flowers.

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Hi Vishal!
My name is Melissa Longnecker and I’m one of the AP World teachers here at Fiveable. Thanks for responding to this SAQ! (Were you the first one to respond last week? I thought I saw your name on that one too - way to be involved in our community!)

Some feedback on your response:

  1. This is a good response. The prompt asks you to “identify,” and you’ve done so with just the right amount of detail here. You wouldn’t need a longer answer for this type of prompt.

  2. This response is pretty good, though a little more detail would be helpful. The prompt verb here is “describe,” which is similar to “identify” (not needing a long explanation), but usually needs a little more detail. Some additional info about the USSR’s policies of land collectivization would strengthen your answer.

  3. I like where you are going with this answer. As an “explain” prompt, this part needs the most detail and elaboration on your part. I like that you’ve connected it to the image specifically, noticing the clothing of the people in the background. What specific traditions or culture do you see in Mexico that continued in the early 20th century? An example with explanation would complete this response!

Overall, great job with your answers on this one!!


My name is Melissa Longnecker and I’m one of the AP World teachers here at Fiveable. Thanks for responding to this SAQ! We’re so glad you’re here practicing with us!

Some feedback on your response:

  1. The prompt asks you to identify a way that the image above reflects political changes. Your answer gives a political change - awesome! Another sentence connecting that to the image specifically would strengthen and complete your response.

  2. The description of land reforms in China is a good place to start for this prompt. The last sentence about the loss of agricultural lands putting a strain on food supplies could use an example or specific detail to connect it to the first part of your answer. Overall, you’re on the right track with this one.

  3. This is a really interesting answer. You’re right to notice and remember that women’s social status was lower than men’s in Mexico (and almost everywhere) in the early 20th century. And, you’ve noticed two specific details in the image to support your ideas. One thing that would strengthen this response is another sentence connecting your examples to your initial answer. How do the images of women in this painting specifically demonstrate their lower social status?

Remember that “explain” prompts require the most detailed responses of any SAQs, so your answers will generally be longer for those than an “identify” or “describe” prompt.

Thanks again for practicing with us - I hope to see your name pop up on future SAQs!

  1. One Way in which this image displays political change after the Mexican Revolution is the usage of a newly adopted constitution that would shift the ways that the Mexican government would deal with land redistribution, education, and suffrage.
  2. The USSR addressed land reform in many aggressive ways that caused tension among peasants. The Bolsheviks got rid of private ownership of land and used peasants’ crops to feed the working class. This would cause multiple uprisings resulting in political tensions.
  3. Mexico continued to be guided as a nation under one leader. Whether it be Porfirio Dias or Emiliano Zapata.
    (I could use some help with #3) Thanks!

My name is Melissa Longnecker and I’m one of the AP World teachers here at Fiveable. Thanks for responding to this SAQ! We’re so glad you’re here practicing with us!

Some feedback on your response:

  1. This answer does a good job addressing the prompt. I especially like how it gives specific examples to support a general claim about the new constitution.

  2. This answer also does a good job. The specific example about ownership of land and its impact is very clear and precise.

  3. I’m glad you asked for help with this one - I think it’s the hardest part of this SAQ! One key is to look at the themes addressed in the prompt: social or cultural. A social answer should address a continuity in how people interacted with one another (such as race, gender, family, etc.). A cultural answer should address a continuity about what people believe, value, or find identity in, OR how they express those beliefs, values, and identities. Take a look at the other figures in the image to think about how they might connect to one of these themes.

Thanks again for practicing with us! Check back soon for more SAQs!!

  1. The image shows the governer working with the people to ensure the convenience of all citizens, depicted by the governer going over blueprints with people behind him looking over them as well.
  2. In Russia, after the emancipation of serfs, land was sold by nobles who were no longer able to maintain it without extra help, making it available to the newly freed serfs, making it an example of land reform, albeit one without any intervention needed from the Tsar.
  3. The image reflects the continued roles of the peasant class a woman is carrying a child, while other children are present, and men are holding oars by the river, which appears to be the setting of the image, so it can be assumed that their occupation relates to the river.

I don’t know anything about the Mexican Revolution and don’t remember much about Mexico in general, so I can’t say this SAQ is one of my better ones.

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Hi Tanya!
My name is Melissa Longnecker and I’m one of the AP World teachers here at Fiveable. Thanks for responding to the SAQ! I know that it’s hard to jump in and respond when you don’t feel confident about the topic, so thanks for being brave and giving it a try!

Some feedback on your response:

  1. This response does a good job of connecting back to the image itself. It’s clear you’ve spent some time analyzing the image and trying to work out what is happening in it. The next step to make this answer stronger would be to take your analysis and connect it to the prompt. In this case - what do you see in the image that shows a political change in Mexico?

  2. You’re right to think of Russia in terms of land reform for this question. The emancipation of the serfs was in 1861, so that example doesn’t quite work for this question. What kind of land reform happened in Russia during the 20th century?

  3. Again, your observation of the image is a great thing for this prompt! Thinking about gender is a great way to address social issues in any civilization. What do you see about the women (or men) in this image that seems like a continuity in gender roles from an earlier time period that continues into the 20th century?

If you’d like some additional content about the Mexican Revolution, check out Eric’s post just below the prompt. He’s linked to some great resources that would support an answer to this prompt or generally enhance your understanding of this period in Mexican (and global) history!

Thanks again for responding, and we hope to see you again on a new SAQ!!

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  1. A political change reflected above due to the aftermath of the Mexican revolution shows a veer from a dictatorship ran by Porfirio Diaz to more communist ideologies on specific matters such as land reform.

  2. When looking at Stalin’s rule of the USSR, he addressed land reform by implementing a collectivization program. His party made peasants share farms to spread his communist beliefs of equal ownership.

  3. A social continuity is the persistence of perceived gender roles as put forth by society. Women during this time are still being depicted as doing domestic duties with the connotation they are nurturing. In the image, the only women there is holding a child in her arms while the males have some type of labor tools as if to show they were doing handy work. This playing into how their society sees males as having strength and power. Plus, the clothing in the image also play into these stereotypes because the females are wearing multicolored dresses while the males have on more plain, rugged clothing.

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My name is Melissa Longnecker, and I’m an AP World teacher here at Fiveable. Thanks for joining us for this SAQ practice!

Some feedback on your response:

  1. This is a good clear answer to this prompt. The prompt only asks you to “identify,” so the amount of detail you’ve provided is just fine. If this were an “explain” prompt, you would want additional explanation/elaboration to connect the image to the idea of land reform.

  2. This is another good, clear answer. Again, with a “describe” prompt, you only need to give the basics here without a lot of lengthy detail.

  3. This is a really thoughtful response to this prompt! I like the specific connection to the image as well as the significance of what you see relating to social continuities. SAQs only need short answers, so you’re right to just identify 1-2 examples to support your idea.

Great work on this SAQ, and I hope we’ll see you here again soon!!

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  1. After the Mexican revolution, the photo above reflects political issues that occurred after the 20th century that their land was mainly governed and owned by people in higher power like the rich and the government, but the land reforms helped to redistribute and give back land to those while rightfully owned it
  2. Russia is another place that dealt with land reforms. They had many people that believed they rightfully owned different amounts of land when they in fact didn’t
  3. A social continuity for Mexico after the 20th century captured in the photo above is that they are a new and developing country, they are in tact with their culture. To go along with this their social status they still believed men as superior and we can tell because there’s a mother caring for her child, and another female that’s just presenting flowered and neither of their roles play a part where the rest of the men in the picture look to have a say in what’s going on
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Hi Natalia!
Thanks for joining us here on Fiveable. I’m Melissa Longnecker, and I’m one of the AP World History teachers here. I’m so glad you wrote a response to this SAQ practice!

Some feedback on your SAQ:

  1. The summary here of what land reforms did is correct, and it is a political change in Mexico. One way to strengthen this response would be to add specific detail about land reforms in Mexico (who, what, or how it happened). It doesn’t need to be much, but specific details will strengthen almost any answer!

  2. You’re right to think about Russia in terms of 20th century land reforms. Again, specifics will help here. What specifically happened in Russia when land reforms occurred?

  3. For this prompt, you needed to address either social or cultural continuity - not both. (This will save you time on a real timed SAQ.) The social continuities you’ve noticed relating to gender are a good start here. Specific details about gender roles or expectations in Mexico (and how they continued into the 20th century) would strengthen this response.

Thanks again for responding - I hope we’ll see you on future SAQs!

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For number 2, are you referring to the Stolypin land reform? I had to look that one up as we have not covered it in class :flushed:

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There isn’t just one correct answer for #2, though the Stolypin land reforms would work. You wouldn’t even need to be that specific though - just describe the process of land reforms in Russia (or the USSR) in the 20th century with as much detail as you can remember.

The AP Exam isn’t about necessarily remembering every possible specific detail, but rather giving the best details you can for each question.

Hope this helps!

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  1. The image shows the shift from the majority of landowners being rich in Mexico before the Mexican Revolution to a more equal redistribution of land after the Mexican Revolution. After the Mexican Revolution ended in 1921, land reforms were enacted so that more middle-class and poor Mexicans could own land. Before the Mexican Revolution, most landowners were wealthy. Therefore, one of the effects of the Mexican Revolution was that land was redistributed to poorer and middle class Mexicans after revolts over how few were able to own land took place during the Mexican Revolution, and land ownership became more collective.
  2. The Chinese Communist government redistributed land to institute collectivism in their society. The Chinese Communist “Great Leap Forward” policy collectivized farms and agricultural lands to ensure that they were shared between people. The Great Leap Forward policy was one way that the Chinese government redistributed land because farmlands were streams of food, and agriculture was one of the China’s main trade goods during the early and mid-twentieth century.
  3. A continuity that is reflected is how men held more rights in Mexican society, particularly political power. During the Mexican Revolution, men often worked as politicians while women worked as homemakers. Women also maintained traditional gender roles before and after the Mexican Revolution, as Mexican politics were male-dominated before and after the Mexican Revolution. Furthermore, the fact that males held more privileges in comparison to women was a continuity was shown in the image as women were onlookers during this ceremony. Moreover, the role of men in Mexican politics throughout their history showed how they had more societal privileges than women because they could make more important decisions.
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