Schema vs Heuristic

Can someone explain what the difference between a schema and heuristic is?

A schema is a mental concept to organize and interpret information

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Meanwhile, a heuristic is a thinking strategy that allows us to make judgements and solve problems effectively.

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In psychology, a schema describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. A heuristic, however, is any approach to problem solving or self-discovery that employs a practical method that is not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect or rational, but which is nevertheless sufficient for reaching an immediate, short-term goal.

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I look at schemas like folders in a file cabinet. At first it’s one big folder, cats, alligators, birds all fit into the one folder. As we gain more experiences, we divide these into sub-folders: four-legged vs feathered; walking vs flying vs swimming animals - each with their own folder. Think of Boo in Monsters Inc. She calls Sully “Kitty” because she has the one folder/schema of furry animals. She eventually accommodates and creates new subfolders of monsters vs kittens. Likewise, heuristics allows us to take quickly access the correct sub-folder to make decisions more efficiently (though not always correctly).

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