what are ways to get the sophistication point that are not using historical context? What does knowledge of the rhetorical situation mean?
Know these front and back:
Rhetorical Appeals (these are not devices)
● Ethos: an appeal to shared values, ethics, or respected authority
● Logos: an appeal based on facts and logic
● Pathos: an appeal based on emotion - creating an emotion in the audience in order to change their
(If you want to make an appeal - these are the tools you use to make it)
- Anaphora: A type of parallelism, with the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of
successive lines, phrases, or sentences
- Antithesis: two opposites are placed close together to achieve a contrasting effect.
- Connotation: All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests rather than the literal
- Diction: a speaker’s choice of words
- Figurative Language: words or phrases not to be taken literally
- Imagery: description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
- Irony: the use of words to convey a meaning that is opposite of the literal meaning or a reversal of
- Parallel Structure: the repetition of the grammatical structure of similar words and phrases
- Juxtaposition: putting two things next to each other to make an argument
- Allusion: A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, work of art, song, etc. that
exists outside the text.
Types of Figurative Language
● Hyperbole: exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
● Metaphor: a figure of speech making a comparison by referring to one thing as another
● Personification: a figure of speech in which an object or an animal is given human feelings, thoughts,
● Simile: making a comparison using “like” or “as”
I ask my students to consider SOAPSTone to think about the rhetorical situation:
If you have correctly identified each of the above in your answer, you’re on your way to understanding the rhetorical situation.
Sophistication has layers, and it is something that would be embedded throughout your essay.
Here are a few guided questions to help you build it:
- Does your language reflect your rhetorical situation?
- Are your words general or specific?
- How can you intentionally create tone?
- What unique element shows YOUR style?
- Are all of your ideas presented clearly or do you have logical leaps?
- Are there places the reader has to figure it out or where questions are unanswered?
Would the conclusion be the best way to earn the point
Honestly, the rubric for readers says that sophistication must be sustained, not in only one part of the essay. A conclusion is a good place to contextualize the “so what?” of the essay (why do any of these choices matter to the big picture), but each part of the essay should show a good understanding of the argument as a whole.
Oh ok thank you. that make a lot more sense.