Study Guide!

Hereโ€™s the study guide I made myself to use last year! I know the curriculum has changed this year, but feel free to use any of this that might still apply to the new curriculum! Hope it helps a little! :grinning:

Key Terms and Concepts:
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 BCE

โ— Hunting-Foraging Bands
โ—‹ Small groups (kinship)
โ—‹ Hunted game and collected wild plants; food
โ—‹ Technology: bows and arrows & spears
โ—‹ Religion: Animism

โ— Neolithic Revolutions
โ—‹ Middle East
โ—‹ People settled in an area w/ water supply, planted seeds in the ground and lived in permanent villages
โ—‹ Crop Irrigation, Animals Domesticated
โ—‹ Animals helped w/ hunting, transportation, and agriculture
โ—‹ Disease spread

โ— River Valley Civilizations
โ—‹ First places where Neolithic Rev. occurred
โ—‹ Mesopotamia, Nile Valley, Indus River Valley, Shang (Yellow and Huang He)
โ—‹ Built first buildings, formed villages, developed into cities

โ— Pastoralism
โ—‹ Raised domesticated animals
โ—‹ Did not develop agriculture; still moved around in herds
โ—‹ Africa, Europe, Asia
โ—‹ Ex. Mongols

โ— Urbanization
โ—‹ Small villages became centers of government, trade, and religion
โ—‹ Specialization of jobs, social levels, and gender roles
โ—‹ Counting and writing systems; ex. Cuneiform (Mesopotamia)
โ—‹ Religious temples: Ziggurats (Mesopotamia) >> ex. of architecture
โ—‹ Ex.) Sumer (Mesopotamia), Catal Huyuk (Turkey), Mohenjo Daro and Harappa (Indus River Valley), Olmec (Mesoamerica), and Chavin (Peru)

โ— Early Empires
โ—‹ Ruler or King who claimed that their power was derived from the Gods
โ—‹ Babylonians
โ–  Code of Hammurabi: harsh code
โ—‹ Egyptians
โ–  Peak: Stretched along the Nile River from modern Sudan to the Mediterranean coast, west into Libya, and northeast into Lebanon

โ— Animism/Polytheism
โ—‹ Animism: Gods in nature
โ—‹ Polytheism: many Gods
โ—‹ Difference: Gods in polytheism have specific names and duties

โ— Monotheism
โ—‹ Belief in 1 god
โ—‹ Hebrews >> Judaism
โ—‹ Persia >> Zoroastrianism

Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 BCE to 600 CE

โ— Classical Era
โ—‹ Time Period ^
โ—‹ Classical civilizations: Greek, Roman, Han, Maurya, Gupta >> All rose in political, social, and economic power, then fell
โ—‹ Persians and Mayans are also important

โ— Hinduism
โ—‹ Earliest known
โ—‹ Written codes
โ—‹ Class of religious leaders: priests
โ—‹ Indo-European influence
โ—‹ Caste system

โ— Buddhism
โ—‹ Reform of Hinduism
โ—‹ Siddhartha Gautama/Buddha (โ€œthe Enlightened oneโ€)
โ—‹ Spiritual equality
โ—‹ Missionary activity
โ—‹ Spread: trade routes

โ— Confucianism
โ—‹ Kong Fuzi (Confucius)
โ—‹ Philosophy
โ—‹ Codes of behavior, gender, and family duties
โ—‹ Neo-Confucian: Confucianism + Buddhism + Daoism & promised reward for faith

โ— Christianity
โ—‹ Reform of Judaism
โ—‹ Jesus Christ: taught eternal salvation through belief that he was Jewish Messiah, sent by God to save humanity from eternal punishment
โ—‹ Spread: Missionaries >> throughout Roman Empire

โ— Han Empire
โ—‹ Existed around same time as Roman Empire
โ—‹ Traded with each other
โ—‹ One of largest empires of Classical Era
โ—‹ Far ahead in technology

โ— Mandate of Heaven
โ—‹ Emperor will stay in power as long as heavens were satisfied by rule
โ—‹ Emperor lost mandate when a family line (dynasty) died, or was overthrown
โ—‹ *Continuity throughout the changing dynasty; showing stability in society

โ— Chinese Examination System
โ—‹ Started with Han Dynasty
โ—‹ State-sponsored exams for scholar-bureaucrats to become people associated with jobs in the government

โ— Mediterranean Civilizations
โ—‹ Greek and Roman
โ—‹ Romans borrowed a lot from Greeks that Collegeboard thought it would be convenient to combine the two

โ— Hellenism
โ—‹ Alexander the Great: 4th Century BCE; conquered Persian empire
โ—‹ Egypt to India
โ—‹ โ€œHellenisticโ€ = blend of Greek and local styles

โ— Maurya/Gupta
โ—‹ South Asia
โ—‹ Mauryan: 320-185 BCE
โ—‹ Gupta: 320-550 CE
โ—‹ Mughal (another powerful empire)
โ—‹ These empires = exception to political fragmentation in South Asia
โ—‹ During most of its existence >> many regional leaders/no unified empire

โ— Bantu Migrations
โ—‹ Classical Era
โ—‹ Sub-Saharan Africa
โ—‹ Started in Central Africa
โ—‹ Migrated South and East
โ—‹ Spreading language and metal working technology

โ— Silk Roads
โ—‹ East Africa, Northern India, Central Asia, Mediterranean, West Africa, Northern Europe: Connected
โ—‹ Silk, tea, spices, horses, and technology: Spread
โ—‹ Camel and horse caravan: Methods of spread
โ—‹ Chinese goods and technology also spread

โ— Indian Ocean Trade Network
โ—‹ Connected to Silk Roads
โ—‹ Routes over water
โ—‹ Merchants: African, Arab, Jewish, Chinese
โ—‹ Religions: Islam and Buddhism
โ—‹ Exchanged: silver, cotton, spices, etc.

โ— Fall of Classical Empires
โ—‹ All 3 major fell
โ—‹ 1st - Han Dynasty in China
โ—‹ 2nd - Roman Empire
โ—‹ 3rd - Gupta Empire
โ—‹ Causes: Internal Pressures (Peasant revolts) & External Pressures (Invading nomads and imported diseases)

Period 3: Regional and Interregional Interactions, c. 600 CE to c. 1450

โ— Trans-Saharan Trade
โ—‹ Traded: goods, people, and faith
โ—‹ Across North Africaโ€™s Sahara Desert
โ—‹ Camels = transportation
โ—‹ Gold, Salt, Animal Hides, and Slaves: Main Items Traded
โ—‹ Muslim Merchants: Camels and Islam (spread into North and West Africa)
โ—‹ 3 Important Trade Centers: Djenne, Goa, Timbuktu

โ— Islam
โ—‹ Arabia
โ—‹ Muhammad
โ—‹ Monotheism
โ—‹ United polytheistic Arab tribes
โ—‹ Spread rapidly via merchants and trade routes

โ— Caliphate
โ—‹ Culturally: united
โ—‹ Politically: fragmented into caliphates (regional states)
โ—‹ Led by caliphs
โ—‹ Ex. Abbasid, Umayyad, Fatamid

โ— Crusades
โ—‹ Christians vs. Muslim
โ—‹ โ€œHoly landโ€ (in Southwest Asia) and parts of the Byzantine Empire
โ—‹ Major: 1100 to 1300
โ—‹ Politically: European Christians >> didnโ€™t regain much land
โ—‹ Culturally: acquired knowledge due to contact with Muslims (reintroduction to Greek and Roman learning >> sparked renaissance)

โ— Dar al-Islam
โ—‹ โ€œEverywhere Islam isโ€
โ—‹ Afro-Eurasia
โ—‹ Spain, Northwest Africa, to South and Southeast Asia
โ—‹ Large region where Islamic faith and culture was dominant

โ— Diffusion of Religions
โ—‹ Christianity, Buddhism, Islam
โ—‹ B & C: Missionary monk
โ—‹ C & I: By force
โ—‹ B & I: Peacefully by merchants

โ— Byzantine Empire
โ—‹ Fell in 476 CE
โ—‹ Headquarter: Constantinople
โ—‹ Major economic, social, and political influence over Southern and Eastern Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean, and Southwest Asia

โ— Tang and Song Dynasties
โ—‹ 2 of the most famous
โ—‹ Largest population, most advanced technology, and most splendid cities
โ—‹ Way to Remember: โ€œDrink some Tang and sing a Songโ€

โ— Sinification
โ—‹ โ€œChinese-ificationโ€
โ—‹ Japan, Korea, and Southwest Asia
โ—‹ Political, social, and economic

โ— Mongols
โ—‹ โ€œAgents of changeโ€
โ—‹ โ€œUnstoppable tide of horrorโ€
โ—‹ Invaded South China, rode into Southwest Asia and Russia
โ—‹ Pax Mongolica: peace and trade after brutal conquest

โ— Black Death
โ—‹ Originated along trade routes near Black Sea
โ—‹ East and West during age of Mongol conquests
โ—‹ โ…“ of Western Europeโ€™s population

โ— Mayan States
โ—‹ Mesoamerica
โ—‹ Pyramids, large cities, written language, and complex society
โ—‹ Tikal: important city

โ— Coerced Labor
โ—‹ Slavery, serfdom, corvee (government required projects) and indentured servitude
โ—‹ Found across all civilizations
โ—‹ Ex. European serfdom

โ— Feudalism
โ—‹ Western Europe and Japan
โ—‹ Agricultural workers for landowners
โ—‹ Armies fought over land rights at bidding of local lords
โ—‹ Europe: knights
โ—‹ Japan: samurai

โ— Zheng He
โ—‹ Power of Ming dynasty
โ—‹ Expeditions: treasure ships and thousands of sailors
โ—‹ Travelled to Spice Islands and crossed Indian Ocean

Period 4: Global Interactions, c. 1450 to 1750

โ— Inca Empire
โ—‹ Centered in Andes Mountains
โ—‹ Built on previous cultures
โ—‹ Empire extended along Western coast
โ—‹ Result of conquest and diplomacy
โ—‹ Peak of Influence: 15th century
โ—‹ Decline Rapidly: Spanish conquistador arrival

โ— European Explorations
โ—‹ Seeking spices, silk, and other goods
โ—‹ Sent ships around Africa, into Indian Ocean, and across Atlantic Ocean
โ—‹ Participation from: Portugal, Spain, France, England, and Holland
โ—‹ Rise of European influence

โ— Columbian Exchange
โ—‹ Triggered exchange of plants, animals, technology, and diseases

โ— Atlantic World
โ—‹ Encompasses: people, politics, religions, goods, and ideas
โ—‹ Connected: Europe, Africa, and North & South America

โ— Mercantilism
โ—‹ Economic nationalism
โ—‹ Nations developed colonies in Americas and Asia that provided raw materials
โ—‹ This includes: sugar, furs, silver, and lumber
โ—‹ Processed and sold by owner
โ—‹ Sign of economic and political power

โ— Atlantic Slave Trade
โ—‹ European mercantilists >> in need of laborers to work on sugar plantations (Caribbean)
โ—‹ Laborers found in West Africa
โ—‹ โ€œMiddle Passageโ€: journey across Atlantic
โ—‹ Demographic changes in Africa and New World

โ— Encomienda System
โ—‹ Spanish practice used in Spainโ€™s American colonies and the Philippines
โ—‹ Spanish settlers granted land and were permitted to use native people as indentured servants

โ— Mughal Empire
โ—‹ Muslim
โ—‹ Akbar
โ—‹ Religious tolerance
โ—‹ Taj Mahal
โ—‹ โ€œMongol descendantsโ€

โ— Syncretism in Religions
โ—‹ Adapt to local customs to spread
โ—‹ Buddhism: SE Asia >> Buddha = god-like
โ—‹ Islam: South Asia >> Hindu features
โ—‹ Christianity: New World >> Traditional gods became part of pantheon of saints

โ— Printing Press
โ—‹ Developed in China
โ—‹ Trade Routes
โ—‹ Spread to Europe
โ—‹ Alphabet

โ— Ottoman Empire
โ—‹ Muslim
โ—‹ SW Asia, North Africa, and Eastern Europe
โ—‹ Ottoman Turks ruled

Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900

โ— Industrialization
โ—‹ Began in England
โ—‹ Westโ€™s social changes & economic and political expansion
โ—‹ Handmade to Machine-manufactured

โ— Enlightenment
โ—‹ Western
โ—‹ Scientific study and intellectual reason
โ—‹ Freedom of speech and government participation
โ—‹ Influenced American and French Revolutions, which set examples for future revolutions to come

โ— Capitalism
โ—‹ Economic system based on individual economic development
โ—‹ Private investors use money: invest in potentially profitable activities
โ—‹ Adam Smith: advocate

โ— Marxism
โ—‹ Karl Marx
โ—‹ Tried to close gap between rich and poor
โ—‹ Marxism: poor unite (many) and overthrow the rich (few)
โ—‹ Government controls production and labor

โ— Nationalism
โ—‹ Belief that people with similar cultural backgrounds belong together in one nation
โ—‹ Popular in Western Europe
โ—‹ Led to many wars for independence: Latin America

โ— Age of Revolutions
โ—‹ During โ€œAge of Ismsโ€ in Western Europe^^
โ—‹ Sought political and social change (inspired by Enlightenment and French Revolution)

โ— Imperialism
โ—‹ 19th century: Western Europeโ€™s economic and industrial power = strongest political force and colonies all around the world
โ—‹ Participants: Russia, Japan, and United States
โ—‹ National pride >> โ€œthe sun never sets on the British empireโ€
โ—‹ ยฝ of Africa, much of South and SE Asia

โ— Social Darwinism
โ—‹ Nationalist ideas
โ—‹ Europeโ€™s political and industrial superiority
โ—‹ Morally superior to those conquered
โ—‹ โ€œSurvival of the fittestโ€ (applied)

โ— Resistance to Western Hegemony
โ—‹ Local resistance was widespread
โ—‹ Chinese & opium
โ—‹ Anti-colonial rebellions in Africa
โ—‹ India: National Congress promoted self rule

โ— Meiji Restoration
โ—‹ Attempt to compete with West
โ—‹ Japan
โ—‹ Reorganized government
โ—‹ Emperorโ€™s power was reestablished
โ—‹ Purposefully westernized

โ— Nineteenth-Century Migrations
โ—‹ Industrial Revolution: improvements; made ocean travel safer and cheaper
โ—‹ Push: revolutions and poor living conditions
โ—‹ Pull: stories of opportunities
โ—‹ Migration to the Americas

โ— Indentured Servitude
โ—‹ End of slavery (areas under Western control)
โ—‹ South Asians: agricultural indentured servants in South Africa and the Caribbean
โ—‹ East Asians: indentured servants in the Americas

โ— Open Door Policy
โ—‹ US proposed them, Japan, and European powers share open access to trade with China
โ—‹ Weak Chinese government was unable to resist influence
โ—‹ Regarded as: the โ€œarrivalโ€ of the United States in global affairs

โ— โ€œSecondโ€ Industrial Revolution
โ—‹ 1st: Mechanization of agriculture and textiles
โ—‹ Focus changed to innovations in electricity, chemistry, transportation, and steel
โ—‹ Rapidly influenced social and economic changes in the West

Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 1900 to the present

โ— The World Wars
โ—‹ Among โ€œGreat Powersโ€
โ—‹ Caused by massive military production
โ—‹ Long, global war w/ 20 year break in between
โ—‹ Results: Decline of Western Europe and rise of United States and Soviet Union

โ— The Great Depression
โ—‹ Between World Wars
โ—‹ Global economic disaster
โ—‹ 1920s
โ—‹ WW1 = great economy, then downfall
โ—‹ Results: Authoritarian Governments and WW2

โ— Authoritarianism
โ—‹ Result of WW1: Rejection of Democratic forms of government
โ—‹ Ex.) Russia, Germany, Italy, and Japan
โ—‹ Single Party/Dictatorship
โ—‹ Communism and Fascism
โ—‹ Growing military aggression of Fascist governments = cause of WW2

โ— Communism
โ—‹ Karl Marx: proposed it
โ—‹ Vladimir Lenin: put in place
โ—‹ Government directs economy and provides services for all (attempts to)
โ—‹ Authoritarianism (method of rule)
โ—‹ Competed with capitalist societies

โ— Decolonization
โ—‹ Europe: gets rid of colonial empires
โ—‹ Colonies (South Asia, SE Asia, and Africa), gain independence
โ—‹ ^^ but, suffered social, economic, and political changes

โ— Partition
โ—‹ India
โ—‹ Muslim and Hindu conflict
โ—‹ Pakistan created
โ—‹ Pakistan then further divided into Bangladesh and Pakistan

โ— Cold War
โ—‹ Dominant global conflict after WW2
โ—‹ US and Soviet Union
โ—‹ Keep other from increasing political and economic influence
โ—‹ Prepared for a โ€œhot warโ€
โ—‹ Didnโ€™t fight directly
โ—‹ Nuclear and other weapons used to threaten
โ—‹ Soviet Union fell, and Cold War ended

โ— Multinational or Transnational Corporation
โ—‹ Does business in more than one country
โ—‹ Early Example: British and Dutch East India Company
โ—‹ After WW2, became more common
โ—‹ Ex.) Exxon, Mobil, Toyota

โ— Pacific Rim
โ—‹ 2nd half of 20th century
โ—‹ Strong economies on both sides of Pacific
โ—‹ Usually refers to: China, Japan, Australia, South Korea, and Singapore

โ— Chinese Revolutions
โ—‹ Early 20th century, revolution against emperor >> limited democracy
โ—‹ After WW2, Mao Zedong helped overthrow government
โ—‹ Social, Political, and Economic Changes
โ—‹ Until late 20th century: communist China was isolated from global economic involvement
โ—‹ After Maoโ€™s death, they were open to trade

โ— Apartheid
โ—‹ Political and Social Policy
โ—‹ South Africa
โ—‹ Whites and Blacks separated
โ—‹ White minority: more rights
โ—‹ Black majority: less rights
โ—‹ Reversed later after decades of global pressure

โ— Feminism
โ—‹ Roots extended back to Enlightenment
โ—‹ Mainly related to 20th century
โ—‹ Began in Western democracies

โ— Globalization
โ—‹ Increased communications
โ—‹ Decreased gap in economies
โ—‹ Especially popular in 20th century

โ— Historiography
โ—‹ โ€œHistorical interpretationโ€
โ—‹ Study of history or different ways historians interpret the past

โ— Periodization
โ—‹ Knowing when things happened


This is really good stuff! Iโ€™ll bet you ROCKED your exam last year!

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