Topics I need help with

  • Can someone go over psychoanalytical vs psychodynamic…and maybe examples?
  • Cognitive Dissonance
  • 3 steps of moral development
  • Big 5 trait theories and maybe examples
  • id, ego, and superego

This may help with the Big Five

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Psychoanalytic: refers to Freud and the neo-Freudians; focus on the unconscious; very in-depth study of individuals (maybe a few times a week for years)

Psychodynamic: modernized psychoanalytic perspective; still focus on unconscious but not trying to treat the entire personality

Cognitive Dissonance: the uncomfortableness that results when one’s beliefs conflict with one’s actions

Kohlberg’s Moral Development:

  1. preconventional (up to 6 yo): morality is determined by getting rewards and avoiding punishments
  2. conventional (6 to 12 yo): morality means following the rules
  3. post-conventional (12 and over): morality is determined by what one determines is just; if a law is unjust, one may break it

Big 5 Traits:

  1. Conscientiousness
  2. Agreeableness
  3. Neuroticism
  4. Openness to new experiences
  5. Extraversion/introversion

Id: I want, I want, I want-- pleasure principle
Ego: Reality Principle
Superego: Idealized self (what I ought to do)


Psychoanalytic refers to the perspective and theoretical ideas that were originated by Sigmund Freud where as psychodynamic refers to the ideas and perspective that came from Sigmund Freud and his followers.

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COGNITIVE DISSONANCE. When confronted by evidence that one’s actions are incorrect or destructive, one can change one’s beliefs or one can change one’s actions.

Most people change their beliefs.

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I think this sums up the Id, ego, superego


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Cognitive Dissonance is basically where the conscious is at odds. I do this, but I see evidence where maybe I shouldn’t do or believe this. I don’t like that tuition is high, but see that without funding, some of the activities I like may be cancelled.

The three levels of Kohlberg’s Moral Development are Preconventional (in youth and lower levels of cognitive development - black and white/right and wrong) Conventional (starting to learn the rules of society and why they are in place) Postconventional (higher level thought - I know the rule, but don’t necessarily agree with it; perhaps perspectives on moral issues like abortion or rights of owning a gun).

Give 5 is Walter Mischel’s CANOE:
The traits are the key and this image/graph might help understand examples of each trait

ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO are the three levels of Freud’s of conscious and moral decisions
The ID takes what it wants based on the Pleasure Principle
The Ego would consider the options and consequences based on the Reality Principle
The Superego would do what is morally acceptable based on the Moral Principle

Hope these help some.


@bob.gawlitta @Nicole3 @drnanjo @gwenk

Thank you so much!!!

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