The prompt was about comparing and contrasting reforms in China and the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century.
Western imperialism in both the economic and political spheres caused the Ottomans to want to strengthen themselves to protect themselves from foreigners through reform movements called the Tanzimat Reforms. Western industrialization particularly was a cause for worry since Westerns got access to superior militaries they could use to conquer Ottomans. China also tried to reform itself after the British defeated the Chinese in the Opium Wars and Russia tried to connect China to itself by building railroads to China through a movement called the Self-Strengthening movement. China was particularly afraid of advanced Western weaponry that it witnessed in action during Western attack of ports during the Opium wars and this was a cause for reform movements in China.