This can be seen in Document 1 where the Japanese a Japanese warrior is defeating a big Chinese warrior showing how Japan a foreign power was conquering China. This shows how Chinese reform movements were successful at warding off the Japanese. This document was likely made in the context of after the Sino-Japanese War where China was brutally defeated by Japanese invaders and this event may be what the author is referring to in the document. China’s defeat during the Sino-Japanese War shows how reform movements in China like the self-strengthening movement were successful in warding off Japanese.
Claim: Both Ottoman and Chinese reform movements were ultimately unsuccessful at warding off foreigners.